Progesterone

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Progesterone is a steroid hormone whose main role is to help prepare a woman's body for pregnancy. It works in conjunction with several other female hormones. This test measures the level of progesterone in the blood.  On a monthly basis, the hormone estrogen causes the lining of the uterus, the endometrium, to grow and replenish itself, while a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) leads to the release of an egg from one of two ovaries (ovulation). A corpus luteum then forms in the ovary at the site where the egg was released and begins to produce progesterone. This progesterone, supplemented by small amounts produced by the adrenal glands, stops endometrial growth and readies the uterus for the possible implantation of a fertilized egg.  If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, progesterone levels drop, and menstrual bleeding begins. If a fertilized egg is implanted in the uterus, the corpus luteum continues to produce progesterone, with the egg forming a trophoblast that produces human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). After several weeks, the placenta replaces the corpus luteum as the main source of progesterone, producing relatively large amounts of the hormone throughout the rest of a normal pregnancy.  Progesterone is also produced in males but at a much lower level. Its function involves the development of sperm.